CoDAS
https://codas.org.br/article/doi/10.1590/2317-1782/20212020200
CoDAS
Artigo Original

Quais fatores interferem no desempenho de pré-escolares no subteste de linguagem da Bayley-III?

What factors interfere with the performance of preschool children in the language subtest of Bayley-III?

Antonio Marcos Oliveira de Lima; Ana Manhani Cáceres-Assenço

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Resumo

Objetivo: verificar se o desempenho de pré-escolares nascidos prematuros e a termo no subteste de linguagem da Bayley-III difere e identificar se as variáveis idade gestacional, peso ao nascer, nível socioeconômico e escolaridade materna são determinantes no desfecho de desenvolvimento de linguagem. Método: estudo transversal descritivo caso controle em que 36 pré-escolares nascidos prematuros e 27 nascidos a termo foram avaliados em relação ao desenvolvimento de linguagem pelo subteste da Bayley III. Foram considerados pré-escolares entre 18 e 36 meses de idade cronológica; com ausência de síndromes ou alterações genéticas, sensoriais, neurológicas, auditivas ou visuais; e que não tinham realizado terapia fonoaudiológica previamente. Os testes de MannWhitney, Exato de Fisher e regressão logística binária foram utilizados para análise estatística. Resultados: o desempenho dos grupos não diferiu seja pela pontuação composta (p=0,701) ou pela classificação baseada no percentil (p=0,225). A idade gestacional, o peso ao nascimento e o nível socioeconômico não influenciaram no desfecho do desenvolvimento de linguagem. No entanto, a escolaridade materna foi significativa (p=0,014) no modelo de regressão logística binária, sugerindo que a mãe ter estudado até a educação básica aumenta a chance de ter um filho com desempenho abaixo do esperado no subteste de linguagem da Bayley III em 6,31 vezes. Conclusão: não houve diferença entre os grupos no subteste de linguagem da Bayley-III e apenas a escolaridade materna influenciou no desfecho do desenvolvimento de linguagem.

Palavras-chave

Pré-Escolares; Nascimento Prematuro; Testes de Linguagem; Desenvolvimento da Linguagem; Fatores de Risco

Abstract

Purpose: to verify if the performance of pre-school children born prematurely and at term in the Bayley-III language subtest differs and to identify whether variables gestational age, birth weight, socioeconomic level, and maternal education are determinant in the outcome of language development. Methods: Descriptive cross-sectional case-control study in which 36 pre-school children born prematurely and 27 born at term were evaluated concerning language development by the Bayley III subtest. Preschoolers between 18 and 36 months of chronological age were considered; with no syndromes or genetic, sensory, neurological, auditory, or visual impairments; and had not previously undergone speech-language therapy. Mann-Whitney, Fisher’s Exact, and binary logistic regression tests were used for statistical analysis. Results: the groups’ performance did not differ either by the composite score (p = .701) or by the classification based on the percentile (p = .225). Gestational age, birth weight, and socioeconomic status did not influence the outcome of language development. However, maternal education was significant (p = .014) in the binary logistic regression model, suggesting that the mother having studied until basic education increases the chance of having a child underperforming in the Bayley III language subtest 6.31 times. Conclusion: there was no difference between the groups in the Bayley-III language subtest and only maternal education influenced the outcome of language development.

Keywords

Preschool Child; Premature Birth; Language Tests; Language Development; Risk Factors

Referências

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Submetido em:
20/06/2020

Aceito em:
31/03/2021

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