Artigo Original

Communication-related aspects of prospective memory: an exploratory factor analysis of prospective memory questionnaires

Dasmine Fraclita D’Souza; Gagan Bajaj; Himani Kotian; Sheetal Raj Moolambally; Jayashree S. Bhat

Downloads: 0
Views: 129


ABSTRACT: Purpose: Prospective memory (PM) questionnaires are frequently used to evaluate perceptions of PM skills in daily life. This study aimed to systematically investigate communication-specific attributes using pre-existing PM self-rating questionnaires to inform clinicians and researchers about the role of PM in cognitive communicative evaluations.

Methods: PM-related items from three questionnaires (i.e., Prospective Memory Questionnaire, Comprehensive Assessment of Prospective Memory, and Prospective and Retrospective Memory Questionnaire) were compiled and embedded in Google Forms and distributed to 70 Speech-Language Pathologists (SLPs) with expertise in Cognitive Communicative Disorders across India. Participants first identified items related to communication, and were then contacted to rate the communication-related PM items using a Likert scale for their degree of appropriateness. Responses from 40 SLPs were obtained and subjected to item-content validity index (i-CVI) and exploratory factor analysis (EFA).

Results: Of the 114 PM items, 28 received ratings over 50% for their relevance to communication. Of the 28 items, 21 had an i-CVI score greater than 0.8. After the removal of overlapping content, 14 items were finalized and subjected to EFA, which resulted in four factors: PM failure due to loss of communicative content, PM failure due to loss of communicative intent, PM cost due to ongoing interference, and PM failure linked to the priority of communicative intent.

Conclusion: This study highlights communication-related aspects of PM that can be used as a framework for SLPs to assess and research PM skills.


Prospective Memory, Self-perception, Questionnaire, Communication, Speech Language Pathology


1 Burmester B, Leathem J, Merrick P. Assessing subjective memory complaints: a comparison of spontaneous reports and structured questionnaire methods. Int Psychogeriatr. 2015;27(1):61-77. PMid:24989800.

2 Henry JD. Prospective memory impairment in neurological disorders: implications and management. Nat Rev Neurol. 2021;17(5):297-307. PMid:33686303.

3 Kvavilashvili L, Ellis J. Varieties of intention: some distinctions and classifications. In: Brandimonte M, Einstein GO, McDaniel MA, editors. Prospective memory: theory and applications. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates; 1996. p. 23–52.

4 Henry JD, MacLeod MS, Phillips LH, Crawford JR. A meta-analytic review of prospective memory and aging. Psychol Aging. 2004;19(1):27-39. PMid:15065929.

5 van Benthem KD, Herdman CM, Tolton RG, LeFevre JA. Prospective memory failures in aviation: effects of cue salience, workload, and individual differences. Aerosp Med Hum Perform. 2015;86(4):366-73. PMid:25945553.

6 McDaniel MA, Einstein GO. Prospective memory as it applies to work and naturalistic settings. In: McDaniel MA, Einstein GO, editors. Prospective memory: an overview and synthesis of an emerging field. Thousand Oaks: SAGE Publications; 2007. p. 191-218.

7 Brandimonte MA, Ferrante D. The social side of prospective memory. In: Kliegel M, editor. Prospective memory: cognitive, neuroscience, developmental, and applied perspectives. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum; 2008. p. 347-65.

8 Mathew MM, Bhat JS, Sreya NM, Arora A. Manipal manual for cognitive linguistic abilities: manuals [Internet]. Manipal: Manipal University Press; 2013 [cited 2019 Feb 28]. Available from:

9 Hannon R, Adams P, Harrington S, Fries-Dias C, Gipson MT. Effects of brain injury and age on prospective memory self-rating and performance. Rehabil Psychol. 1995;40(4):289-98.

10 Smith G, Del Sala S, Logie RH, Maylor EA. Prospective and retrospective memory in normal ageing and dementia: a questionnaire study. Memory. 2000;8(5):311-21. PMid:11045239.

11 Roche NL, Moody A, Szabo K, Fleming JM, Shum DHK. Prospective memory in adults with traumatic brain injury: an analysis of perceived reasons for remembering and forgetting. Neuropsychol Rehabil. 2007;17(3):314-34. PMid:17474059.

12 Man DWK, Fleming J, Hohaus L, Shum D. Development of the Brief Assessment of Prospective Memory (BAPM) for use with traumatic brain injury populations. Neuropsychol Rehabil. 2011;21(6):884-98. PMid:22150453.

13 Sugden N, Thomas M, Kiernan M, Wilesmith M. Validation of the Prospective Memory Concerns Questionnaire (PMCQ). Front Hum Neurosci. 2021;15:686850. PMid:34512292.

14 Lemery KS, Essex MJ, Smider NA. Revealing the relation between temperament and behavior problem symptoms by eliminating measurement confounding: expert ratings and factor analyses. Child Dev. 2002;73(3):867-82. PMid:12038557.

15 Blondelle G, Hainselin M, Gounden Y, Quaglino V. Instruments measuring prospective memory: a systematic and meta-analytic review. Arch Clin Neuropsychol. 2020;35(5):576-96. PMid:32239191.

16 Piauilino DC, Bueno OFA, Tufik S, Bittencourt LR, Santos-Silva R, Hachul H, et al. The Prospective and Retrospective Memory Questionnaire: a population-based random sampling study. Memory. 2010;18(4):413-26. PMid:20408038.

17 Kliegel M, Eschen A, Thöne-Otto AIT. Planning and realization of complex intentions in traumatic brain injury and normal aging. Brain Cogn. 2004;56(1):43-54. PMid:15380875.

18 Chau LT, Lee JB, Fleming J, Roche N, Shum D. Reliability and normative data for the Comprehensive Assessment of Prospective Memory (CAPM). Neuropsychol Rehabil. 2007;17(6):707-22. PMid:17852758.

19 Brooks BM, Rose FD, Potter J, Jayawardena S, Morling A. Assessing stroke patients’ prospective memory using virtual reality. Brain Inj. 2004;18(4):391-401. PMid:14742152.

20 Yusoff MSB. ABC of content validation and content validity index calculation. Education in Medicine Journal. 2019;11(2):49-54.

21 Meier B, Zimmermann TD. Loads and loads and loads: the influence of prospective load, retrospective load, and ongoing task load in prospective memory. Front Hum Neurosci. 2015;9:322. PMid:26082709.

22 Walter S, Meier B. How important is importance for prospective memory? A review. Front Psychol. 2014;5:657. PMid:25018743.

23 Spaan PEJ. Episodic and semantic memory functioning in very old age: explanations from executive functioning and processing speed theories. Cogent Psychol. 2015;2(1):1109782.

24 Ball BH, Peper P, Bugg JM. Dissociating proactive and reactive control in older adults. Psychol Aging. 2023;38(4):323-32. PMid:37104786.

25 Foster ER, Rose NS, McDaniel MA, Rendell PG. Prospective memory in parkinson disease during a virtual week: effects of both prospective and retrospective demands. Neuropsychology. 2013;27(2):170-81. PMid:23527645.

26 Pereira DR. Prospective memory: a narrative review on theoretical models, methodological approaches, and main findings. Psicologia. 2018;32(1):29-48. PMid:32026122.

27 Guynn MJ. A two‐process model of strategic monitoring in event‐based prospective memory: activation/retrieval mode and checking. Int J Psychol. 2003;38(4):245-56.

28 Cohen AL, Hicks JL. Prospective memory remembering to remember, remembering to forget. Cham: Springer; 2017. 111 p.

29 Burns MS. Cognitive and communication interventions: neuroscience applications for speech-language pathologists. San Diego: Plural Publishing; 2020.

Submetido em:

Aceito em:

6657a6e2a95395742f551783 codas Articles


Share this page
Page Sections