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https://codas.org.br/article/doi/10.1590/2317-1782/20212021208
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Obstructive Sleep Apnea: characterization of the obstructive site and type of collapse

Apneia Obstrutiva do Sono: caracterização do sítio obstrutivo e tipo de colapso

Andresa Santos da Silva; Fabio Augusto Winckler Rabelo; Eric Thuler; Fabiane Kayamori; Esther Mandelbaum Gonçalves Bianchini

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Abstract

Obstructive Sleep Apnea is characterized by recurrent episodes of partial or complete collapse of the pharynx, followed by decreased oxyhemoglobin saturation and frequent arousals. It is regarded as a public health issue with important night and day symptoms that impact life quality. Its effects are associated with the areas of competence of Speech and Language Pathologists. To establish efficient diagnosis and treatment methods, professionals must know the pathogenesis of upper airway obstruction during sleep. This study seeks to enlarge the understanding of obstructive sleep apnea pathophysiology, eligibility of individualized therapeutic procedures and guidance for orofacial myofunctional therapy by describing and illustrating the locations and types of upper airway collapse during sleep. We analyzed original records of Drug Induced Sleep Endoscopy exams of a series of cases with polysomnographic diagnosis of obstructive sleep apnea following the proper ethical processes. The images of the exam recordings were analyzed by five professionals with expertise in the sleep area. Obstructive sites and types of collapse were presented according to the current classification. The videos were divided into screenshots, originating figures from each anatomical site: without collapse and collapsed. The results are visualized in the images of the cases showing a predominance of velopharyngeal collapse: anteroposterior, lateral, or concentric; oropharyngeal lateral collapse; tongue anteroposterior collapse and anteroposterior collapse of the epiglottis. Understanding the obstruction sites and types of collapse illustrated in this study may help to predict therapeutic responses and learn the limitations or direct individual proposals patient.

Keywords

Obstructive Sleep Apnea; Snoring; Pharynx; Endoscopy; Myofunctional Therapy; Speech Language and Hearing Sciences

Resumo

A Apneia Obstrutiva do Sono caracteriza-se por episódios recorrentes de colapso parcial ou completo da faringe, seguidos de diminuição da saturação de oxihemoglobina e despertares frequentes. É considerada problema de saúde pública com importantes sintomas noturnos e diurnos, impactando qualidade de vida. Seus efeitos associam-se as áreas de competência da Fonoaudiologia. Para estabelecer diagnóstico e métodos de tratamento eficientes, profissionais devem conhecer a patogênese da obstrução da via aérea superior durante o sono. Visando contribuir para a compreensão da fisiopatologia da apneia obstrutiva do sono, elegibilidade de procedimentos terapêuticos individualizados e direcionamento para terapêutica miofuncional orofacial, o presente estudo tem como objetivo descrever e ilustrar os locais e tipos de colapso da via aérea superior durante o sono. Após processos éticos, foram analisados registros originais das sonoendoscopias de uma série de casos com diagnóstico polissonográfico de apneia obstrutiva do sono. As imagens das gravações dos exames foram analisadas por cinco profissionais com expertise na área do sono. Os locais obstrutivos e tipos de colapso foram apresentados conforme classificação vigente. Os vídeos foram divididos em capturas de tela, originando figuras de cada sítio anatômico: sem colapso e com colapso. Os resultados foram apresentados por imagens dos casos, que ilustram cada colapso, predominando colapso velofaríngeo: anteroposterior, lateral ou concêntrico; seguido por colapso orofaríngeo lateral; colapso anteroposterior na hipofaringe e colapso anteroposterior da epiglote. O entendimento dos locais de obstrução e tipos de colapso ilustrados nesse estudo pode ser um preditor de respostas terapêuticas, auxiliando a compreensão das limitações ou direcionando propostas para cada paciente.

Palavras-chave

Apneia Obstrutiva do Sono; Ronco; Faringe; Endoscopia; Terapia Miofuncional; Fonoaudiologia

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