Artigo Original

Measurement of listening effort using of a dual-task paradigm of Brazilian Portuguese: a pilot study

Mensuração do esforço auditivo com o uso de um paradigma de tarefa dupla do Português Brasileiro: estudo-piloto

Laura Mochiatti Guijo; Mirella Boaglio Horiuti; Ana Cláudia Vieira Cardoso.

Downloads: 1
Views: 1952


Purpose: To measure listening effort using of a dual-task paradigm of working memory and analyze the clinical significance of the normal-hearing individuals’ performance. Methods: Participants were 10 young adults with similar socio-cultural level, aged 18-30 years, of both genders, classified as normal-hearing individuals based on the quadritonal average (500, 1000, 2000 and 4000 Hz). The participants were submitted to audiological anamnesis, meatoscopy, and pure tone audiometry. Listening effort was measured using a dual-task paradigm comprising the tasks of speech perception and working memory with logatomes, real words, and meaningless sentences. Prior to measurement, the dual-task paradigm was carried out in audiometric booth in order to train the participants to perform the tasks properly. After the training stage, this paradigm was conducted under two different hearing situations with white noise: signal-to-noise ratios of +5 and -5dB. Results: Performance comparison per ear, right or left, for the two signal-to-noise ratios significantly influenced the speech perception tasks with logatomes and meaningless sentences in both ears; however, significant difference was observed only for the right ear in the tasks of listening effort and working memory. Conclusion: Listening effort can be measured using the paradigm proposed, and this instrument was proven sensitive for the quantification of this auditory parameter.


Hearing, Listening Effort, Auditory Perception, Auditory Tests, Memory, Cognition.


Objetivo: Mensurar o esforço auditivo com o uso de um paradigma de tarefa dupla de memória operacional e analisar a significância clínica do desempenho de indivíduos normo-ouvintes. Método: Participaram 10 adultos jovens, entre 18 e 30 anos, de ambos os gêneros, normo-ouvintes classificados segundo a média quadritonal (500, 1000, 2000 e 4000Hz) e com nível sociocultural similar. Os participantes foram submetidos à anamnese audiológica, meatoscopia e audiometria tonal limiar. Para a mensuração do esforço auditivo, utilizou-se um paradigma de tarefa dupla, composto por tarefas de percepção de fala e memória operacional de logatomas, palavras reais e sentenças sem sentido. Anteriormente à mensuração, o paradigma de tarefa dupla foi realizado no silêncio com o intuito de treinar os participantes a desempenharem as tarefas adequadamente. Após a fase de treinamento, este paradigma foi realizado em duas situações de escuta distintas, nas relações sinal/ruído de +5 e -5dB, com o ruído do tipo White Noise. Resultados: A comparação do desempenho por orelha, direita ou esquerda, nas duas relações sinal-ruído demonstrou efeito significante para as tarefas de percepção de fala de logatomas e sentenças sem sentido em ambas as orelhas, porém para a tarefa de esforço auditivo e memória operacional houve diferença significante apenas para a orelha direita. Conclusão: Foi possível mensurar o esforço auditivo com o uso do paradigma proposto e este instrumento demonstrou ser sensível para a quantificação deste parâmetro auditivo.


Audição, Esforço Auditivo, Percepção Auditiva, Testes Auditivos, Memória, Cognição.


1 Picou EM, Ricketts TA, Hornsby BW. How hearing AIDS, background noise, and visual cues influence objective listening effort. Ear Hear. 2013;34(5):e52-e64. PMid:23416751. [ Links ]

2 Pichora-Fuller MK, Kramer SE, Eckert MA, Edwards B, Hornsby BW, Humes LE, et al. Hearing impairment and cognitive energy: the framework for understanding effortful listening (FUEL). Ear Hear. 2016;37(Supl 1):5S-27S. PMid:27355771. [ Links ]

3 Bregman AS. Auditory scene analysis: the perceptual organization of sound. Cambridge: MIT Press; 1990. [ Links ]

4 McAdams S, Bigand E. Thinking in sound: the cognitive psychology of human audition. New York: Clarendon Press/Oxford University Press; 1993. Based on the fourth workshop in the Tutorial Workshop series organized by the Hearing Group of the French Acoustical Society. [ Links ]

5 Neuhoff JG. Ecological psychoacoustics. San Diego: Elsevier Academic Press; 2004. [ Links ]

6 CHABA: Committee on Hearing, Bioacoustics and Biomechanics. Speech understanding and aging. J Acoust Soc Am. 1988;83(3):859-95. PMid:3281988. [ Links ]

7 Wingfield A, Tun PA, McCoy SL. Hearing loss in older adulthood what it is and how it interacts with cognitive performance. Curr Dir Psychol Sci. 2005;14(3):144-8. [ Links ]

8 Tun PA, McCoy S, Wingfield A. Aging, hearing acuity, and the attentional costs of effortful listening. Psychol Aging. 2009;24(3):761-6. PMid:19739934. [ Links ]

9 Daneman M, Carpenter A. Individual differences in working memory and reading. J Verbal Learn Verbal Behav. 1980;19(4):450-66. [ Links ]

10 Pichora-Fuller M, Kramer SE, Eckert MA, Edwards B, Hornsby BW, Humes LE, et al. Hearing impairment and cognitive energy: the Framework for Understanding Effortful Listening (FUEL). Ear Hear. 2016;37(Supl 1):5S-27S. PMid:27355771. [ Links ]

11 Heinrich A, Schneider BA, Craik FI. Investigating the influence of continuous babble on auditory short-term memory performance. Q J Exp Psychol. 2008;61(5):735-51. PMid:17853231. [ Links ]

12 Heinrich A, Schneider BA. Elucidating the effects of ageing on remembering perceptually distorted word pairs. Q J Exp Psychol. 2011;64(1):186-205. PMid:20694922. [ Links ]

13 McCoy SL, Tun PA, Cox LC, Colangelo ML, Stewart RA, Wingfield A. Hearing loss and perceptual effort: downstream effects on older adults′ memory for speech. Q J Exp Psychol. 2005;58(1):22-33. PMid:15881289. [ Links ]

14 Schlittmeier SJ, Hellbrück J, Klatte M. Does irrelevant music cause an irrelevant sound effect for auditory items? Eur J Cogn Psychol. 2008;20(2):252-71. [ Links ]

15 Gordon MS, Daneman M, Schneider BA. Comprehension of speeded discourse by younger and older listeners. Exp Aging Res. 2009;35(3):277-96. PMid:19449242. [ Links ]

16 Sarampalis A, Kalluri S, Edwards B, Hafter E. Objective measures of listening effort: effects of background noise and noise reduction. J Speech Lang Hear Res. 2009;52(5):1230-40. PMid:19380604. [ Links ]

17 Pals C, Sarampalis A, Başkent D. Listening effort with cochlear implant simulations. J Speech Lang Hear Res. 2013;56(4):1075-84. PMid:23275424. [ Links ]

18 WHO: World Health Organization [Internet]. Geneva: World Health Organization; 2014 [citado em 2018 Fev 26]. Disponível m: impairment_grades/en/ [ Links ]

19 Cousins KA, Dar H, Wingfield A, Miller P. Acoustic masking disrupts time-dependent mechanisms of memory encoding in word-list recall. Mem Cognit. 2014;42(4):622-38. PMid:24838269. [ Links ]

20 Peelle JE. Listening effort: how the cognitive consequences of acoustic challenge are reflected in brain and behavior. Ear Hear. 2018;39(2):204-4. PMid:28938250. [ Links ]

21 Brännström KJ, Karlsson E, Waechter S, Kastberg T. Listening effort: order effects and core executive functions. J Am Acad Audiol. 2018;29(8):734-47. PMid:30222543. [ Links ]

22 Wingfield A, Amichetti NM, Lash A. Cognitive aging and hearing acuity: modeling spoken language comprehension. Front Psychol. 2015;6:684. PMid:26124724. [ Links ]

23 Pichora-Fuller MK, Schneider BA, Daneman M. How young and old adults listen to and remember speech in noise. J Acoust Soc Am. 1995;97(1):593-608. PMid:7860836. [ Links ]

24 Mackersie CL, Cones H. Subjective and psychophysiological indexes of listening effort in a competing-talker task. J Am Acad Audiol. 2011;22(2):113-22. PMid:21463566. [ Links ]

25 Hicks CB, Tharpe AM. Listening effort and fatigue in school-age children with and without hearing loss. J Speech Lang Hear Res. 2002;45(3):573-84. PMid:12069009. [ Links ]

26 Wingfield A, Tun PA. Cognitive supports and cognitive constraints on comprehension of spoken language. J Am Acad Audiol. 2007;18(7):548-58. PMid:18236643. [ Links ]

27 Wayne RV, Johnsrude IS. A review of causal mechanisms underlying the link between age-related hearing loss and cognitive decline. Ageing Res Rev. 2015;23(Pt B):154-66. PMid:26123097. [ Links ]

28 Costa MJ, Iorio MCM, Albernaz PLM, Cabral EF Jr, Magni AB. Desenvolvimento de um ruído com espectro de fala. Acta Awho. 1998;17(2):84-9. [ Links ]

Submetido em:

Aceito em:

5d75678c0e8825762119fc7a codas Articles


Share this page
Page Sections